International Law and its Discontents: Technology Laws


  • Zeina Abu-Meita


Technology enables trans-jurisdictional activity, both legal and illegal, by people, organisations, and governments. Technology is advancing much faster than the international laws that must cope with such progression.  Blockchain technology is examined as an opportunity for the law to catch up with technological advancements rather than fall further behind them.  Governments and corporations have made several disconnected attempts to harness the unique properties of blockchain technology to promote electronic voting and asset registration. The benefits of incorporating blockchain technologies may have the potential to alleviate some of international law’s current discontents.


A Articles/Books/Reports

Abu-Meita, Zeina and Nick Inglis, 'Financial Equality, the Ignored Human Right: How e-Currencies Can Level the Playing Field' (2019) Griffith Journal of Law & Human Dignity, Special Issue: Law and Human Dignity in the Technological Age 105

Berg, Alistair et al, 'The Institutional Economics of Identity', (2018) Social Science Research Network 1-20

Brito, Jerry and Andrea Castillo, Bitcoin: A Primer for Policymakers (Mercatus Center, 2013)

Casey, M J and P Vigna, The Truth Machine: The Blockchain and the Future of Everything (HarperCollins Publishers, 2018)

CCDCOE, Tallinn Manual 2.0 On the International Law Applicable to Cyber Operations (2nd ed)

Dubovec, Marek and Elias Adalberto, 'A Proposal for UNCITRAL to Develop a Model Law On Warehouse Receipts' (2017) 22(4) Uniform Law Review 716

Griggs, Lynden et al, 'Blockchains, Trust and Land Administration — The Return of Historical Provenance' (2017) 6 Property Law Review 180

Hieronymi, O, 'The Nansen Passport: A Tool of Freedom of Movement and of Protection' (2003) 22(1) Refugee Survey Quarterly 36

Kilbride, Nina, 'Monax Commercial Paper Bundles: Toolkit for Financial Engineering Monax' <>

Lamport, Leslie, Robert Shostak and Marshall Pease, 'The Byzantine Generals Problem' (1982) 4(3) ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems 382

Bennett, Lyria Moses 'Recurring Dilemmas: The Law's Race to Keep up with Technological Change' (2007) 2007(2) University of Illinois Journal of Law, Technology & Policy 239

Ormsby, Eileen, 'Dealer's Chance: The Dark Web, Bitcoin and the Fall of Silk Road' (2019) 64 Griffith Review 184

Patterson, L R, Copyright in Historical Perspective (Vanderbilt University Press, 1968)

Paech, Philipp, 'Securities, Intermediation and the Blockchain — An Inevitable Choice between Liquidity and Legal Certainty?' (2016) 21(4) Uniform Law Review 612

Raskin, Max, 'The Law and Legality of Smart Contracts' (2017) 1(2) Georgetown Law Technology Review 304

Sater, Stan, 'Blockchain and the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation: A Chance to Harmonize International Data Flows' (2017) SSRN Electronic Journal 612

Schultz, Thomas, 'Carving up the Internet: Jurisdiction, Legal Orders, and the Private/Public International Law Interface' (2008) 19(4) European Journal of International Law 799

Shehata, Ibrahim, 'Smart Contracts & International Arbitration' (2018) Social Science Research Network 1-25

Svantesson, Dan Jerker B, Private International law and the Internet (Wolters Kluwer, 3rd ed, 2016)

Wegberg, Rolf, J Oerlemans and O Van Deventer, 'Bitcoin Money Laundering: Mixed Results? An Explorative Study On Money Laundering of Cybercrime Proceeds Using Bitcoin' (2018) 25(2) Journal of Financial Crime 419

B Other

Bloomberg, Jason, 'Eight Reasons to Be Skeptical About Blockchain', Forbes (Web Page, 31 May 2017) <>

Curran, Brian, 'What is Game Theory? And How Does It Relate To Cryptocurrency?' Blockonomi (Web Page, 21 March 2019) <>

DeMarinis, Richard, ‘Is Blockchain the Answer to e-Voting? NASDAQ Believes So' NASDAQ (Web Page, 23 January 2017) <>

‘Discover, Invest In, and Trade Growth Companies', Funderbeam (Web Page, 2019) <>

‘Estonia E-Residency Program & Bitnation Dao Public Notary Partnership', Bitnation (Web Page, 2019) <>

Haleem, Amir et al, 'Helium: A Decentralized Wireless Network' (2018) Helium Systems Inc

Higgins, Stan, 'Republic of Georgia to Develop Blockchain Land Registry', Coindesk (Web Page, 22 April 2016) <>

Kurbalija, Jovan, 'Digital Geneva Convention: multilateral treaty, multistakeholder implementation', Diplo (Web Page, 23 February 2017) <>

Macquarie Dictionary (7th ed, 2017)

‘Massive Drop in Number of Unbanked, says New Report', The World Bank (Web Page, 15 April 2015) <>

McNamara, Luke, 'Blockchain’s Potential Role in Constraining Future Cyber Conflict' The Cipher Brief (Web Page, 11 May 2017) <>

Moon, Caitlin, 'Blockchain 101 for Lawyers: Part 1', Law Technology Today (Web Page, 10 January 2017) <>

Moon, Caitlin, 'Blockchain 101 for Lawyers: Part 2' Law Technology Today (Web Page, 31 January 2017) <>

Nakamoto, Satoshi, 'Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System', Bitcoin (Web Page, 2008) <>

Orcutt, Mike, 'How Secure is Blockchain Really?', MIT Technology Review (Web Page, 25 April 2018) <>

Raidma, Kristy, 'Tallinn Manual — The International Law in Cyberspace', Estonian World (Web Page, 15 July 2013) <>

Shin, Laura, 'Republic Of Georgia To Pilot Land Titling On Blockchain With Economist Hernando De Soto, BitFury', Forbes (Web Page, 21 April 2016) <>

Smith, Adam, Wealth of Nations an Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, Mobi Classics (MobileReference, 2010)

Smith, Brad, 'The Need for a Digital Geneva Convention' Microsoft (Web Page, 14 February 2017) <>